Understories oKnowledgeable and humane books I ve read about the historyf computing here about the PLATO system I rarely do this but I recommend The Friendly Orange Glow highly and without reserves and have added it to my favorite list and given it five Commissar outf five stars I m curious how this review and book will age Disclaimer I am both a PhD and a full Professor in the technical field Commissary Kitchen: My Infamous Prison Cookbook of distributed multimedia systems to which the PLATO system belongs I have been waiting for this book for years I m glad I read it I m glad it was written All in shortThe content covers the longest lived success you ve probably never heard about the PLATO education system which during its peak lastingver a decade established the principles f streaming multimedia nline education The Firebrand Legacy online gaming social networking and a bunchf technologies we re still trying to improve Mostly between the 1950s and the 1980s with a peak in the middle and a rapid descent afterwards Then partially forgotten and rediscovered In the end PLATO had real passionate users some still Making Instruments Count online afterver four decades Like Walter Isaacson s Einstein His Life and Universe this reads like a thorough honest journalistic effort with smarts Like Robert A Caro s now tetralogy The Years The Kangaroo Pouch: A Story About Gestational Surrogacy For Young Children of Lyndon Johnson it is also a long term research project by an extremely curious and knowledgeable investigator Now the remainderf my review likely detailed than I intended but not detailed and polished enough to get all the stuff rightStructural and stylistic verviewThe Friendly Orange Glow is structured in three parts encompassing twenty seven chapters It s about 600 pages f core content excluding references but it s ne f those books where length does not matter Treat or it s even a plus The ualityf the writing is very high which to me comes as a surprise For me books themed Ramayana Vol 1 on computer history tend to either be too sensationalistr personality cult driven r very dry This ne has excellent balance Content verviewIn Part I The Automated Teacher Brian Dear follows the evolution f ths system in its roughly first 10 years from the basic vision Desire Lines of Alpert et al in the 1950s through Bitzer s first diagram and first flimsy TV based incarnation in Sep 1960 to the CDC 1604 supercomputers powering the backendf PLATO II for up to 32 terminals in 1962 63 to PLATO III s 20 real users time sharing and the CATO lecture compiler in 1967 69 to PLATO IV and its plasma display the range glow and up to 4096 connections by the new CDC CYBER supercomputer and music interface and what not In Part II The Fun They Had the shift to software around the early to mid 1970s leads to real applications that people beyond compsci and general education would enjoy and practically to the premises f nline digital presence and long range large scale communication tens to hundreds to thousands f miles between thousands f people although not all nline at concurrently this is pompous for chat instant messaging character by character woth low latency something we don t have even now forums collective notes fancy emojis and animated text editable so well beyond what ASCII art brought to the scene nline voting political activism and surveys nline newspapers blogs etc etc etc And there were Six-Fingered Stud online games Online strategy and role playing and first person shooter and flight sim and Elite and all MMOs and as addictive as we know them to be today Nothing was as polished as you see it now but this was say 1975 so almost 45 years ago There s also a very nice parallel to Tom Wolfe s Ziggurat where competitors try to climb at the detrimentf thers and a deep analysis f the social network forming around PLATO by someone who s actually been there long term and then spent another 25 years interviewing the people who were there Combined with material extracted from the Colomba original notes written by these andthers in the 1970s and 1980s it s the right stuff with nly a little positive bias after all the author likes PLATO and its people In Part III Getting to Scale there s the uestion f business scale and PLATO will end up a product and a pawn in the hands Lizzie! of fumbling CDC leadership We learn about the many deploymentsf PLATO about a grand vision to scale it to a million terminals CDC about another to make it a general multimedia and communication platform Bitzer and his lab CERL and finally about how these visions bumped into the reality walls f technology and politics and money In the last chapter in this part Leaving the Nest we hear about the major contributions to the industry at large f the former project and tech leads from PLATO now deploying their talents elsewhere there s so much The Epilogue depicts the final shutdown f the PLATO system in 2015 and reminiscence n the topic Snuff Club: An Extreme Horror Novel of what the project actually achieved The Acknowledgements and the Interview and Oral History Sources are also worth reading as are the references and the detailed Source Notes They point to a masterful bodyf research which gives evidence That The Historical Material Here the historical material here credible and accurate LastI can t wait to see a YouTube talk I Remember Beirut of Brian Dear hopefully at Computer History Museum in Mountain View CAr ar the Charles Babbage Institute at the University Il russo of Minnesota Minneapolis MN Or even at a SIGCIS conference if they recover The Friendly Orange Glow The Untold Storyf the PLATO system and the dawn f "cyberculture 2017 by Brian Dear is a fascinating but wildly too long "2017 by Brian Dear is a fascinating but wildly too long f the PLATO interactive net Most people have never heard Night of Delusions of PLATO But they re familiar with all mannerf things which were developed An Anteater Named Arthur on PLATOIt wasriginally conceived as a way to provide Computer Aided Instruction CAI The idea was that while a human teacher has little time to devote to Brutal Asset onen Murmur of Rain one instruction with a student a computer is infinitely patient It can wait for several minutes while the student ponders something As such what was needed were terminals which could provide useful textual and graphical presentationBack then most computers were at best text based with no graphical capabilities PCs didn t exist We re talking late 1960s early 1970s Many computers being used in universitiesf that era were still using punched cardsUniversity Illustrated Dictionary of Religions of Illinois Urbana Champaign UIUC is the setting for mostf this They started by developing terminals which could connect to a mainframe 1066 originally the ILLIAC and later Control Data mainframes and display various kindsf video information text and graphical as well as taking inputs from various types Pancakes for Findus of keyboards The idea was that you could develop courseware for this platform which would present information to a studentne O meio galo onne and then uiz them Horae Homileticae Commentary Volume 3 of 7 on various things adjusting the presentation basedn their responses Instead Bed Riddance: A Posy for the Indisposed of giving students a test then giving them the results days later too much gap to be useful feedback this system could respondn a second by second basis helping students to actually LEARN stuff changing the presentation and providing useful stats to the courseware authors so that they could improve the courseThey wanted a graphical display The CRTs Millionaire Rancher Penniless Cowgirl of the era would need significant amountsf video RAM to drive them Memory was about 2 bit back then not byte kilobyte Gastrophysics: The New Science of Eating or megabyte 2 per BIT A 512 x 512 display which they were targeting would need about a uarter million bitsf memory You can do the math n that They ended up developing plasma display tech AND making a way for the circuitry to uery the display such that the display could also work as memory People who bought plasma TVs and such back in the 1990s and later were using a variation n the tech they developed UIUC made a ton f money ff the patents for thatThe color they chose for their display was a yellowish A Dark Design orange shade hence the book s title It had a remarkable ability to draw people in indeed muchf the color found in a campfire is this particular shade They built their 512 x 512 graphical display fitted it with a touchscreen and used it as the PLATO IV terminal the 4th gen She Moves to Her Own Rhythm: A Guided Exploration (A Color of Woman Coloring Book and Journal) of their design It also featured a full keyboard touchscreen and amongther things a microfiche reader Various ther things could be added a polyphonic music module
Called A Gooch Boxa Gooch box a somewhat limited voice synthesizerVarious demos were done with this getting money from the National Science Foundation and from Congress In the immediate aftermath f Sputnik Congress was willing to spend money n ANYTHING which looked like it might help teach STEM subjects although that term wouldn t appear until later UIUC got a pile f money from both and got to work rolling Luring Tristan out the systemsMagnavox made the terminals They were priceyver 5k each in 1973 you could buy a new car for less As such nly the wealthy ever had their wn terminals But universities and government funded programs in high schools and prisons got plenty f themYes they were a significant step forward in teaching nce some bugs had been ironed ut in the authoring tools But they were achieving real successes as early as 1974 Along the way various high school and college students were playing with it and came up with some ther featuresFirst came notesfiles which are a bit like Three for Halloween online forums You could have discussions withther people How to Draw Spacecraft on various subjects and being a college no subject wasff limits Watergate and alternative lifestyles were both heavily discussed You could post uestions to these and have answers appear from The Scalpel, the Sword: The Story of Dr. Norman Bethune other people within minutes sometimes secondsThey also invented TERM talk which was real time chat And I do mean. Public view The many thousandsf people who used the system have held Underhanded Backgammon: A Devious Guide To The Art Of Backhanded Backgammon on to the PLATO ideas throughout their careers influencing countless technological products and programs from flat panel wall TVs and touch sensitive screens to chat rooms instant messaging screen savers multiplayer games flight simulators crowdsourcing interactive fiction emoticons and e learning Fascinating first hand and revelatory The Friendly Orange Glow makes clear that the workf PLATO practitioners has profoundly shaped the computer industry from its inception to ur very .
What a wild ride While at times it was a bit slow especially near the end this book is still phenomenally well researched and captivating I knew almost nothing about the PLATO computer having nly even heard about it a month ago now I can t believe it s not a canonical part The Education of Chauncey Doolittle (Clay Bank County) of computer history If you re at all interested in early computing cyberculture the dawnf video games r just alternative looks at tech history read this book Five star books get that high ranking from me when they deliver an emotional connection Sometimes it is because f a topic covered at times it is the strength The Beatles: A Private View of the writing that forges that connection Here it is a linkage between a topicf great career building interest to me computer history with my wn history With an author that can mix these things together creating interesting and varied stories along the way you have a great book I found The Friendly Orange Glow to be a great book although I expect that pinion will match that How to Draw Clifford (Clifford the Big Red Dog) (Clifford) of a very small cadref fans This book tells the story A False Proposal of the Plato system used principally for education but later morphing intone f the first interconnected systems for electronic communications and gaming Most f the book covers the creation Doula Programs of the system and its growth mostly in the 60s and 70s My personal connection was as a gamer in the early 80s at the home base for Plato the Universityf Illinois CERL I spent many nights you could nly play games after 10pm in the CERL Plato classroom among the glowing range touchscreens A Primate's Memoir of the Plato system Many early games are described in the book from the perspectivesf the game authors as well the players I haven t thought about these games in decades but this really brought back intense memories I was interested to learn that the Plato system represented many developments that later became commonplace Nazca: Journey to the Sun on the internet including message boards instant messaging notes groups shared screens and the like Authorsn Plato went Selected Writings on to create popular computer games like Flight Simulator and Mah Jong and ubiuitous applications like Lotus Notes This history making computer system was enabled through a verypen environment with try anything leaders always willing to do a demo Much Find, Fix, Finish: Inside the Counterterrorism Campaigns That Killed Bin Laden and Devastated Al-Qaeda of the early system work was accomplished by interesting kids from the neighboring Uni High in the goingsn and later hiring them The book follows the Plato system through its initial development at CERL and ther colleges through the years that CDC attempted to sell it around the world and to its demiseThis is a great book for a detailed telling f the history Nostradamus and the Nazis of this computer system The author provides storiesf many Nostradamus: The Truth Be Told: A Complete History Of Europe of the playersn the team building and selling Plato and developing applications This would be a good business book for those looking for an example کاریکلماتور ، کتاب چهارم: همه به ملاقات آینه میرویم ofpen door recruitment as well as the use f non traditional employees And it provides a detailed example f what can go wrong in moving a research project to commercialization I found the commercialization section the least interesting parts though mainly because they were mostly about missed Rosa, Sola opportunities Overall an excellent computer history The Friendly Orange Glow was written to counter the lackf credit that the Midwest in particular Illinois gets in computer history Here the Plato system gets credit for many innovations later popularized by various applications ver the Internet This is the second book I ve perused that gave credit to the Midwest and Illinois for major advances in computers The inventor f the computer says that he first wrote down his description How to Develop a Magnetic Personality: Discover How to Improve Your Personality to Become a More Attractive Person (Personality Development Tips) of a computer in a bar in Rock Island Illinois Maybe there s something in the water This book is a tour de force as it sweeps through 25 yearsf missing computing history It adroitly weaves the complex technical personal and business story The Kraut: On Being German after 1940 of PLATO It s a compelling narrative held together by great vignettesf the key players who developed the system software and applicationsPlato was a mainframe system Merciless: House of Gravori originally with custom terminals built to provide computer based education but its authoring system was used to build an entire ecosystem way beyond its designer sriginal intent multi user games chat rooms email Cult online news and All appearing ten to twenty years before these ideas were reinvented as commercialnline systems r n desktop computersA good book is 1001 Brilliant Ways to Checkmate one you can t put down A great book isne that raises uestions beyond the books subject This is ne f the great nes CDC buying Plato was ne f the corporate slow motion train wrecks that is still painful to read The story f CDC itself is even a larger disaster A large company trying to buy the utput f an RD lab and productize its A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq, and the Abuse of America's Intelligence Agencies output is still fraught with difficulties even in the 21st century As I read I wondered what if CERL and Plato had been at Stanford rather than Uf I in the late 1970 s Would sitting in the middle Pardon My French Coloring: A Sweary Adult Coloring Book with Cursing in French, Italian, Spanish, and British English of an entrepreneurial ecosystem have spurred spinouts And would those spinouts have been better managed surrounded by venture capitalists andther experienced entrepreneursIt also makes me think Falling in Paris (Encounters, of thether still born computer entrepreneurial cluster in the Midwest Minneapolis It was the home Caps for Sale and the Mindful Monkeys of ERA CDC Cray ETA and Honeywell In spitef all that history the area failed to attract entrepreneurs startups and capital at scale Yet Minneapolis still has a healthy medical device ecosystem built around MedtronicWere the failures f these two Midwest clusters similar Did they not catch fire from the lack f risk capital venture and angel Not understanding the difference between small business startups and corporate management Lack f an ecosystem that was a magnet for attracting non academic risk taking talent Lack f technical and business press that made their innovations and environment known to the rest Faces of Hachiko: A Novel of Present-day Japan of the countryAs great as the book is there wasne down side that almost made me stop reading it and therefore the four stars At least for me the extremely detailed recounting f every game n the system and game developer while great for the audience f readers who knew Plato bogged down the narrative A good editor could have made the point f how revolutionary these gaming innovations were but could have shortened this section by at least 20 pagesBut I m glad I continued because this was a wonderful and enlightening piece A Scourge of Vipers of computing historyKudos to the author I must admit that came into this book a little wary I could tell from the introduction that Brian Dear has a chipn "His Shoulder About UIUC about UIUC the in general being underappreciated for their technical advancements and it s a major complaint you ll hear anytime you get a tour PathFinder (TodHunter Moon, of the engineeringr related departments at UI I was a little afraid Predator vs. Magnus Robot Fighter of getting into this too longpus f passion a work f years that would be a little like getting cornered at the party by the guy who s I'll Settle for Love obsessed with gaming and wants to tell you the keyboard shortcuts he s discovered And I wasn t all that wrong But despite the chipn the shoulder and the bsession the core f this book was pretty endearing not an author pun and entertaining The heart f the book is a charming tale f hackers and gamers coming together n an early network a testimony to the recognizable but remarkably early evolution f a connected community Dear was a member A compelling deep eminently readable history The Elders Speak: Reflections On Native American Culture And Life of a glaring blindspot in muchf popular computer history PLATO pops up Forrest Gump like in the background f almost every computer history story we know *that verlaps with its nearly six decade lifespan *overlaps with its nearly six decade lifespan the Dynabook inspiring Lotus Notes inspiring some Do What You Love and Other Lies About Success and Happiness of Ted Nelson s thoughts about interactive media in Computer Lib Dream Machines and hosting the prototypes for somef the most popular computer games f the 80s and 90s but this is the first time I ve seen it given its full context as an interesting story in its wn right and I feel like I ve had part Tapi of my sensef computing history undergo percussive maintenance In retrospect Paroles of course some project must have been the missing link between all these things This story is also about how PLATO encountered addressed difficulties associated with being a platform for popularnline communities difficulties that popped up again in usenet again in BBSes and again in email and again in forums and again in blogging social networking Since we largely haven t figured Harper out the answers to those problems it s useful to have data pointsFor a general audience book this work is surprisingly informative about technical aspectsf the system particularly when technical decisions interacted with UX concerns So from a pure history Imperium of tech perspective it s interestingn its Norilsk own PLATO seems to be partf a lineage Sfarade of card based interfaces something common and extremely influential within pre web hypertext but rarely documented in the general pressDear does a lot to contextualize the time period the political economic pressures putting into perspective who thether players were what they did and why down to the details Oeuvres of infighting between different paradigms in the late 1950s ed tech space I rarely see that levelf detail in tech histories with regard to funding sources their justificationsHighly recommended for anyone with even a passing interest in computing history You don t need a general background in it but if you have Mde one the story is even impressive Brian Dear The Friendly Orange Glow The Untold Storyf the PLATO System and the Dawn Soie of Cyberculture isne Mmoires of the most. The remarkable untold storyf PLATO the computer program and platform created in the 1960s that marked the true beginning Ordesa of cyberculture a book that will rewrite the historyf computing and the InternetHere is the story Vladivostok of the brilliant eccentric designers developers and denizensften teenagers and twentysomethings Circ of the PLATO system a computer network so far aheadf its time and with a list Potique of hardware and software innovations so long that it's almost inconceivable that it actually existed and existed so long agonly to fade almost entirely from. Real time Most IM clients I ve used you type an entire sentence Morphine or at least a phrase send that and either start the next sentence phraser wait for a response With TERM talk you could see how fast and accurately people could type because individual characters were coming down the line including backspace as they wiped camilove out their typos and corrected them People met fell in love and subseuently got married having met through this channel Other people fell in love met and discovered that while they got along wellnline they were thoroughly NOT compatible in personVNC RDP anyone They came up with a monitor mode such that you could see another user s terminal If you were developing some courseware and couldn t get something to work you could chat with a experienced dev they could monitor your screen scroll around if needed and either tell you what to do Lettres or fix it themselves Bothf you could see the same screen at the same time But you had to reuest that they do so there was no provision for spying Phdre on someone else s screen without their knowledge permissionOf course they had email IBM mainframes with green screen terminals had emailAnd since people could dial into systems from elsewhere as far away as Universityf Delaware and University Phdre of Hawaii you could communicate with people across multiple timezones without ever running up a long distance phone billAll in 1974 The Apple 2 didn t arrive until 1977And then there were the gamesDungeon crawlers including massively multi player text based and not long after graphical First person shooters Combat flight simulation FreeCell solitaire Mahjongg And the big baddief them all Empire While Star Trek themed this was a multiplayer graphical game involving traveling in your starship visiting planets shooting bad guys usually teams Contes ofther players establishing trade making money and upgrading your starship Sound familiar At Mde one point the authors mostly students an Universityf Iowa connected to UIUC Gorgiques over a 1200 baud modems had put in an Easter Egg involving the planet killer from Star Trek s The Doomsday Machine episode After much discussion in the line chat players put their usual team alliances aside and lined upne after another feeding their starships to the Liol orange carrot how the planet killer appearedn their Joker orange plasma displays trying to time a reactorverload JUST RIGHT to kill it Iphignie off Once it was killedff their Ravage old allegiances returned and everyone went back to fighting It made a couple appearances but each time the players knew how to kill it and killed itff faster and faster until the developers decided it wasn t a challenge any and remove itNumerous college and high school students flunked Enfance out because they d spend too many hours gamingn the system not enough hours sleeping and studying All kinds Germinal of things were done to access terminals after hours including removing sectionsf wall and hiding behind it until the computer lab was shut down and locked for the night and picking various locks The games in particular were addictive And because this was a largely Nord open source environment again the term didn t exist until later everyone could see how people did stuff everyone could learn and new features were arriving dailyEarly in the system s development a group was developing a library which compiler based languages such as FORTRAN could use to write courseware A high school student came up with an interpreter which was much easier to use The library developers all college students workingn related degrees approached the head Epp of the PLATO project Don Bitzer and demanded that he tell this student to stop He was wasting his time Worse if he succeeded theirfficial development would go unused Don refused to intervene he was a firm believer that the better solution would win Cris out and he was notpposed to people developing competing products and letting them duke it Hilda out in the marketplacef ideas Incidentally the insufferable student student succeeded with his interpreter called TUTOR and grew up to become Hippie onef the power players in PLATOThe managers Papillon of the system largely took a blind eye to the gaming It wasn tfficially part f their mission but it was extremely good at flushing ut security holes and Rythmes other flaws in the system It was not uncommon for a new feature to appear after hours causing the mainframe to crash repeatedly during the night time gaming sessions This would drive the sysadmins and system developers nuts but they d have the problem figuredut and fixed before Appia official hours began the next morning and theverall system improved rapidly because Adolphe of itEventually different universities and companies had theirwn mainframe and hundreds Caligula of terminals Eventually said mainframes were interconnected so that notesfiles TERM talk and software could migrate between the various networked systems It was a proto Internet Back when Charlie s Angels first wentn the airAs went Control Data s fortunes so went PLATO s When Control Data Corp peaked and started falling apart in the 1980s because capable microcomputers had arrived and CDC REFUSED to acknowledge what that meant for the market PLATO went into decline It evolved into NovaNET using client software running Flures on PCs insteadf pricey terminals and finally shutdown entirely in 2015Email Chat Forums Interactive multimedia including graphics voice and music Emojis animated nes It feels like this took me a million years to read but I m glad I stuck with it Dense with information it really blew my mind how much PLATO Did Before Anyone Else And The Community It Built Among before anyone else and the community it built among users both in Champaign Urbana and around the world I m probably biased for this since I m currently a UIUC graduate student and barely a stone s throw away from such monuments to PLATO like the Power House and CSL but I d highly recommend this to anyone interested in computing history and the connective power f computers and a bunch Brnice of programming nerds sitting around monitors late at night drinking Mountain Dew and playing Airfight Also it s hard to hate a book which features a cameo from Leonard Nimoy himself The Friendly Orange Glow by Brian Dear documents the Dawnf Cyberculture with deep readable details meline of the personalities the politics the culture and storiesf the development Lettre Laurence of the PLATO system It reminds mef the uality writing Thogonie of Tracy Kidder in The Soulf the Machine 1981 The Friendly Orange Glow strongly deserves the five stars allows Though six would be accurateWhat is PLATO you ask The stuffy description would be that it was started in 1960 as a computer based education system a way to improve the learning training Andy and His Yellow Frisbee of the United States to help keep aheadf the Soviet Union It starts in the 1950s touching Sydney on the impetus and mindset caused by the Soviet Union launching Sputnik The Cold WarBut the PLATO system evolved to become much than that PLATO IV expanded the horizonsf being an Blade of Dishonor (Omnibus Edition) on campus system in the 1960s to a far reaching networked system in the early 1970s In 1973 and 1974 alone interactive chat screen sharing person notes email notesfiles topic discussion groups multi player networked games animated text graphics animated emojis graphic logon pages Goodle search page and all provided a social dimension much broader than just being used for training The Friendly Orange Glow TFOG details the culture in which this environment thrived the culture led by Don Bitzer and supported by the creative team at the Universityf Illinois This development approach helped support the development f these many capabilities It also highlights stories as Brian Dear suggests three books worth f stories with heart and emotion the #highs and pitfalls Moscardino ofnline culture How careers were made how careers were lost by the addictive nature #and pitfalls Shiver ofnline culture How careers were made how careers were lost by the addictive nature PLATO affected some many flunking from college r getting divorced because f the interactive networked games r discussion groupsIn late 1975 an interactive story Guanogap was released in installments It was written as if "you were watching ver the shoulder f the narrator while he interacts "were watching ver the shoulder f the narrator while he interacts various characters reads notes and pnotes email You see it happen It is a snapshot f the culture Huey piano Smith and the Rocking Pneumonia Blues of the lifen the PLATO system in 1975 I looked forward to every installment I have yet to see an implementation f an interactive story anywhere n the InternetWait you say weren t interactive network games first started You Were Always On My Mind on the Internet in the 1990s Or if you knewf the Xwindows systems Chine : Dans les monts de la lune of the 1980s weren t they developed there Wasn t networked computer based training CBT first done using MOOCs in the 2000s No The first time sharing usef a computer was developed for PLATO in the early 1960s John Brunner published my favorite read The Shockwave Rider in 1975 I re read it every few years and remain astounded at how forward looking it was describing a twenty first century world dominated by computer networks hackers cyber crime and I don t know whether Brunner ever saw Lego Crazy Action Contraptions: A Lego Inventions Book (Klutz) or knew about the PLATO system but the book also describes aspectsf what PLATO was at the time in the early 1970s and what it could have become The Internet has become that network It first existed Power Revealed on the PLATO networkYou can still SEE and TOUCH the PLATO system liven the Internet Find it at cyber1org You can still use Notes talkomatic term talk and play the multitude f interactive games Every Sunday evening there is a pickup game in Empire You might even see me there though I tend to get killed a lotGuanogap is also there for you to read and experienc. Oment This book is as much the biography f a vision as it is the story Lud-in-the-Mist of the people behind PLATO Every technology story whether it's about the steam engine airplane telephone Model Tr recently Apple Google and Tesla electric car has at its core a vision It is the immutable nature Chasing the Dream Anthology of technology and technology visions to run full life cycles from cradle to grave PLATO's story is no different Like all technology visions PLATO grewutdated and was disrupted by competing visions The Friendly Orange Glow is a revelatory paradigm for ur technological age.